the Fat: The Low-Carb Diet Phenomenon
Stephen Byrnes, ND, RNCP
from Chet: People on the deficient, low-fat and low-protein
Hallelujah or Genesis 1:29 Diet often have problems similiar
to those described in this article. Click
here to learn about crashing on the Hallelujah Diet.]
Allen knew something was very wrong. In the late 1980s, the graphic
designer and father of two suffered a heart attack at the age of
35. Thankful that he survived, Richard followed his doctor’s instructions
to the letter to avoid another heart attack and to avoid making
a widow of his wife.
did everything they told me. I took my medications religiously.
I exercised more. And I followed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet.
I stopped eating eggs (too much cholesterol). I cut back on meat
and trimmed all the fat off what little meat I did allow myself.
I started eating more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and avoided
butter. It was not exactly the tastiest diet, but I figured I was
helping to preserve my health, so it was worth it.”
1995, however, something unexpected happened:
went in for a routine check-up and some blood was drawn for some
tests. I was stunned to find out that my blood sugar levels were
extremely high and I was subsequently diagnosed with adult-onset
diabetes. I was dumbfounded. I had done everything they told me.
I thought I was living and eating healthy and here I was a diabetic
who now needed to take a new set of medications for a new disease.”
years later, his blood sugar elevated and recalcitrant, Richard
was taken off the oral diabetes meds and put on injection insulin--all
the while following the dietary advice he’d been told would make
and keep him healthy. Frustrated, confused, and overweight, Richard
ran into an old friend who had recently changed her diet to include
more animal fats and meat and exclude most grains, starchy vegetables,
sugar and junk food. The friend had seen marked improvements in
her and her family’s health and invited Richard to a picnic near
Sydney, Australia, put on by people following the Optimal
Diet, a high-fat, low carbohydrate diet developed by a Polish
Richard attended and met several of the diet’s devotees, as well
as a visiting naturopath who successfully utilised low-carb diets
in his practice, and Dr. Bogdan Sikorski, a pharmacologist/ toxicologist.
Collectively, they answered Richard’s questions and testified enthusiastically
as to the diet’s effectiveness for a number of conditions, including
heart disease and diabetes. After meeting with a Polish medical
doctor who was on the Optimal Diet himself, Richard
decided to abandon his low-fat/high carb diet (“What good had it
done me anyway?” Richard exclaimed) and adopt a completely different
way of eating.
JUST FOR WEIGHT LOSS
story is not unusual. In recent years, there has been an explosion
of lay and professional interest in low-carb diets. The public,
disillusioned with the supposed effectiveness of low-fat diets and
facing ever-climbing rates of obesity and diabetes, have been embracing
starch-free diets in droves. Though the diet has been mostly associated
with weight loss, practitioners and scientists alike are discovering
the benefits of low-carb diets for a number of diseases--from multiple
sclerosis to diabetes.
diets are nothing new. Throughout history writers such as Anthelme
Savarin (1), William Banting (2), Vilhjamur Stefansson (3), and
Weston Price (4), in one way or another, all advocated lower carb
diets. In more recent times, Drs. Richard Mackarness (5) and John
Yudkin (6) both authored books espousing a lower carbohydrate intake.
It is only in recent years, however, that the low-carb diet has
achieved such wide and sustained popularity.
about low-carb diets abound and this article will deal with several
of them. It is important for readers to know that the low-carb craze
is a true phenomenon, encompassing many writers and many approaches.
Though each differs from the other in slight ways, the bottom line
is this: To be healthy, humans need to reduce their intake of carbohydrates
in any form and increase their intake of protein and fats, especially
animal fats. The following is a summary survey of the various approaches
to low-carb nutrition. Despite their critics, low-carb proponents
stand by their nutritional recommendations as healthy and vibrant.
most famous populariser of low-carb diets has been American medical
doctor, Robert Atkins. His book, Dr. Atkins’ Diet Revolution,
was first published in 1970 and has sold millions of copies. The
latest revision was released in 2002 under the title Dr. Atkins’
New Diet Revolution (Avon Books; 2002). Unlike earlier versions
of the book, the latest revision is heavily referenced, thus ending
frequent criticisms that his diet theories have no scientific basis.
approach to weight loss is simple: Reducing your carbohydrate intake
to less than 40 gms a day will induce ketosis/lipolysis in
the body, a condition where the body breaks down fat instead of
glucose for energy, resulting in weight loss. The allowable foods
are unlimited amounts of meats, fats, cheeses, non-starchy vegetables,
and limited amounts of nuts and low-carb fruits such as strawberries
and blueberries. Off-limits are honey, sugar in any form, breads,
grains, and all starchy vegetables like potatoes.
Atkins’, and other low-carbers view, excessive amounts of carbohydrates
stimulate excessive insulin release by the pancreas. Insulin is
the hormone that carries sugars into our cells for use. It is also
the fat-storing hormone and excessive levels lead to obesity and
a host of other hormonal imbalances which in turn lead to a plethora
of degenerative diseases. If insulin levels remain high, due to
excessive amounts of carbs in the diet, ketosis/lipolysis cannot
then, is the key to weight loss on the Atkins’ diet. Atkins explains:
“The Atkins Nutritional Approach stimulates the process of lipolysis
[which is] burning your fat for energy. A secondary process of lipolysis
is ketosis. Ketosis occurs when you are taking in a low level of
carbohydrates from the food you eat . . . .Lipolysis results in
the creation of ketones (ketosis), a perfectly normal and natural
function of the body.” (7) Ketones can be used as energy by the
body, including the brain.
has always been criticized about ketosis--dieticians claim that
it is a dangerous state for the body to be in. It is well-known
that during starvation, the body will enter ketosis and break down
fat for energy. Diabetics can also enter ketosis, leading to bodily
acidosis, a life-threatening state. The two conditions, however,
are not alike as will be explained later in this article.
Atkins has propounded his philosophy of low-carb living in other
books, not related to weight loss, most notably Dr. Atkins’ Age-Defying
Diet (St. Martin’s Paperbacks; 2001). In this title, he applies
lower-carb diets to improving longevity. In his non-weight loss
approach, Atkins allows more carbs per day (40+ gms), but still
recommends that daily intake should not exceed about 100 gms or
has been criticised by establishment nutritionists and some medical
doctors for promoting a diet that, because it is high in animal
fat and protein, will lead to heart disease and other diseases (dealt
with later in this article). Curiously, critics also accuse the
diet as not including vegetables--something which is clearly false
if you read the recipes included in the books.
has also been criticised by other low-carbers for not emphasising
food quality on the diet and for using various artificial sweeteners
in several of his food products. Atkins also has added a line of
processed soy products to his diet. It is the carbohydrate-free
soy protein powder that allows him to create starch-free breads
and energy bars. Critics point out that processed soy products could
be harmful to the immune, digestive, and endocrine systems (8).
aside, a recent study revealed the effectiveness of the Atkins Diet
(and by extension, all low-carb nutritional approaches) for weight
loss, especially in comparison to its polar opposite: the low-fat,
high-carb diet. The multicenter study showed that the Atkins Dieters
had more weight loss, more adherence to the diet, and better blood
lipid profiles than the low-fat, high-carb dieters (9).
GROVES & THE CALORIE FALLACY
the United Kingdom, another low-carb approach has been espoused
by engineer and author Barry Groves, PhD. Speaking from his English
home, Dr. Groves recounted his experiences over the years with low-carb
interest in nutrition and its effects on health really began in
1962 when I was working in Singapore with the Royal Air Force. We
had a problem, my wife and I -- we were overweight. Since our marriage
in 1957, each of us had gained nearly 13 kilos (28 lbs). We had
tried all the usual ways to lose weight: cutting calories, eating
inert fillers, taking appetite suppressants, wearing sweaty clothes,
indeed we tried just about every weight-loss idea going -- with
results that were decidedly short-term.
first moment of revelation came, sudden and unexpected, when I was
walking through the bustling Changi Market. I saw a second-hand
bookstall and, as I am an inveterate browser, stopped to see what
was on offer. One small paperback stood out. It was called Eat
Fat and Grow Slim by Dr Richard Mackarness. That book changed
our lives -- and our figures -- for good.
book advocated what we thought was impossible: an unrestricted-calorie
diet for weight loss. It said in so many words: eat as many calories
as you like, and the pounds will fall away. Because this proposition
seemed so out of keeping with all we had read up to that time, we
decided to see what it could do for us. To our astonishment, it
worked -- and it has gone on working now for forty years.
the questions began: If an unrestricted-calorie diet can achieve
such results, why are all the books and magazine articles in favour
of calorie-controlled diets? I began my research and the answers
came. All the evidence I found persuaded me that low-calorie dieting
is a snare for the overweight and a delusion for all concerned.
As I read on and on, it dawned on me that a vast 'health' industry
made a very good living out of the business of offering expensive
solutions for the problems, so they said, of keeping ourselves slim
and fit. All those advertisements on television -- eat this special
food, try that diet -- could they have anything to do with the profit
we began to hear that the diet we had been following, which was
relatively high in animal fat, might be dangerous in terms of increased
risk of heart disease. And so, when I retired from the Royal Air
Force in 1982, I devoted myself full-time to a literature search
into the healthiness of 'healthy eating'. I started with the biggie
-- fats, cholesterol and heart disease. I read everything I could
find: the studies and learned papers; the follow-up letters and
studies that they referred to, and so on. All too soon I found that,
contrary to the dogma trotted out in newspapers and magazines, radio
and TV, there is little evidence to show that 'healthy eating' is
good for any aspect of health.
had started to give talks in 1971 about my experience with slimming
on a high-fat diet to any group that would listen. In the 1980s
I extended these talks to include other diseases and, at the same
time, began to write articles and my first book: Diet and Be
Damned. The publishers, Hodder-Headline, were interested but
told me that this book was too important for publication by an unknown
author. They suggested I write a slimming diet book first. The
Calorie Fallacy was published in 1994. Another publisher, Vermilion
(an imprint of Random House), asked me to write a similar book for
them and published my Eat Fat, Get Thin! in 2000. Both these
books were aimed at a lay readership.
in my mid sixties, after forty years of eating a low-carbohydrate,
high-fat diet, I weigh 3kg (7 lbs) less than I did when I married
and my wife is 7 kg (15 lbs) lighter. I also seem remarkably fit
for my age. I took up archery in 1982 at the age of forty-six as
a social outlet. In all I have taken twenty British Records in Target,
Clout, and Flight archery, plus eleven international Gold Medals
and four World Records. This, despite the fact that I take very
little exercise as, for the last thirteen years I have spent most
of my day sitting in front of a computer. I attribute this to my
diet too as it is well documented that Eskimoes, on a high-fat diet,
do not lose muscle tone when they retire to their igloos during
the protracted Arctic winters.”
the years, Groves has seen the low-carb diet help with a wide range
of conditions besides weight loss including gastrointestinal disorders,
migraines, eczema, psoriasis, arthritis, autoimmune diseases like
lupus, heart disease, even multiple sclerosis.
Without Bread (Keats Publishing; 2000) is mostly based on the
clinical experience of Dr. Wolfgang Lutz, an Austrian medical doctor
who successfully used low-carb diets for decades on thousands of
patients. The results of Lutz’ clinical successes have been published
in several European medical journals (mostly in German) and he even
authored a German version of LWB as far back as 1967 to good
response (the book is now in its 6th edition). His work,
however, was ignored in the English-speaking countries. After many
years, with the help of American biochemist Dr. Christian Allan,
Lutz succeeded in securing an American publisher and the results
of his experience and research are now available to all English-speaking
Lutz and Allan’s definition, the low-carb diet should include no
more than 72 gms of carbohydrates a day. The rest of the diet should
be made up of protein and fat from a range of plant and animal sources.
In sharp contrast to other low-carb books, Allan and Lutz discuss
the effectiveness of low-carb nutrition in treating and preventing
several diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, colitis,
and Crohn’s disease. Obesity is also dealt with, but is not the
main focus of the book.
and Allan assert, “We’ve presented powerful evidence that the low-fat
theory of nutrition has not fulfilled its promise, and that low-carbohydrate
nutrition is a valuable tool in the fight against disease. This
alternative to the fat theory is based not only on clinical information
from over ten thousand patients in Dr. Lutz’ practice, but also
on basic biochemical facts and large amounts of published research
data from many scientists and medical researchers throughout the
their meticulously referenced book, Allan and Lutz explain exactly
how excessive carbohydrate intake negatively impacts the body’s
hormonally-controlled metabolic processes. Metabolism is a delicate
equilibrium between anabolism (processes that build up and repair)
and catabolism (processes that break down). “Too much carbohydrate
in the diet disrupts the balancing act between anabolic and catabolic
forces because it sends too much insulin into the blood. Since the
body will always move to balance anabolic and catabolic reactions,
increases in insulin must be dealt with in some way.” (11)
“way” is for the body to reduce its output of other anabolic hormones
such as human growth hormone (needed to stimulate tissue repair
and growth), and increase its output of catabolic hormones such
as various corticosteroids (which can weaken the immune system).
The consequences should be obvious: Chronically elevated insulin
levels disrupt the entire endocrine system, leading to decreased
tissue repair (from lack of growth hormone), reduced sexual function
(from lack of sexual hormones), poor immune function, and insulin
term “insulin resistance” is mentioned frequently in low-carb literature.
It refers to our cells’ inability to respond to insulin. Insulin
is the hormone that shuttles glucose into our cells. It can do this
by attaching to certain receptors on the cell wall. But when the
receptors are full, the insulin/glucose cannot get in, leading to
higher blood sugar and insulin levels. Over time, the elevations
lead to hormonal imbalances which lead to the long-term damages
mentioned above. The cell receptors get full by being clogged up
with fat--the result of excess carbohydrates (not fat!) in the diet
being converted into triglycerides (fat) by the liver. Sometimes,
“insulin resistance” and its cluster of associated conditions, is
referred to as “Syndrome X.”
and Lutz spend a considerable portion of their book debunking many
of the myths surrounding low-carb nutrition. A theme running through
the book is that saturated fats, found primarily in fats of animal
origin, are not the villains modern nutrition makes them out to
final chapter of LWB is also unique to the low-carb nutrition books
available. It shows how to implement the low-carb eating plan in
various people. Lutz and Allan wisely point out that older patients
need to be eased into the program over a period of time, as opposed
to jumping into it cold-turkey. They point out the possible health
hazards of such an approach. This chapter is invaluable for clinicians.
medical doctor Jan Kwasniewski is credited with developing the so-called
“Optimal Diet,” a high animal fat, moderate protein, low-carb diet.
“JK,” as he is referred to by his followers, has authored numerous
books in Polish on his research; a cookbook is also available. Two
English translations of his books are currently available, the most
recent being Homo Optimus, which contains recipes and the clinical
effects of the Optimal Diet on a variety of diseases. (12)
Optimal Diet differs from other low-carb approaches in that it maintains
fairly strict ratios of the macronutrients in its meals. Dr. Bogdan
Sikorski, a pharmacologist and toxicologist and translator of Homo
Optimus, explains the salient features of JK’s approach:
so-called ‘Kwasniewski Diet’ also known as the ‘Optimal Nutrition’
(ON) was developed over 30 years ago in Poland by Jan Kwasniewski,
MD, and over the years it has been implemented by well over a million
(some say two million) people in that country, in treatment and
prevention of a range of diseases.
contrast to other low-carbate dietary regimens, this nutritional
model dictates the exact proportion between the three main food
components, protein, fat and carbate (1:2.5-3(min):0.8, respectively),
which has to be achieved on a daily basis in order to obtain claimed
health benefits. Therefore, unlike all other ad-hoc dietary low-carbate
models, ON strictly controls daily intake of not only the “offending”
sugars but also the intake of protein, the excess of which is also
known to be detrimental to health. Most importantly, both fats and
proteins should be biochemically as close as possible to those found
in the human body, i.e., they have to be obtained from animal products.
They should also contain a full complement of micronutrients, with
products such as eggs, fatty bone broths, organ meats and pork fat
being the most prominent examples.” (13)
has operated a health clinic called Arkadia for many years in Poland,
with visitors from across Europe with a host of degenerative diseases.
“I saw miracles happening there,” said an Australian medical doctor
who emigrated from Poland. “It was simply unbelievable!” Optimal
Diet support groups exist in Poland, the USA, and Australia--details
can be found on the groups’ website listed at the end of this article.
the diet’s clinical success (numerous testimonials can be found
on the groups’ website), the Optimal Diet and JK have been officially
condemned by the Polish medical authorities. In his response to
the pronouncement, JK pointed out the unwillingness of the Polish
medical board to even consider his careful clinical records, something
he has been pushing for over the years.
endocrinologist Dr. Diana Schwarzbein, MD, and author of the best-selling
The Schwarzbein Principle (14), is another proponent of low-carb
diets. Schwarzbein’s work with type two diabetics convinced her
that the high-carb, low-fat diet pushed by most medical and nutritional
authorities was a recipe for disease, including diabetes. As with
Allan and Lutz, Schwarzbein exonerates naturally saturated fats
of the evils attributed to them by the establishment. Her easy-to-read
and well-referenced book contains numerous case histories and includes
a substantial recipe section. Watch for the revision of The Schwarzbein
Principle due out in September 2002.
nutritional psychologist Julia Ross, MA, has written her own low-carb
friendly book The Diet Cure (15). Though not specifically a low-carb
book, Ross’ work definitely leans towards a lower carb diet in helping
to balance brain chemistry and maintain health.
Audette, another American, has authored Neanderthin (16) which espouses
a lower-carb diet that excludes all grains, dairy, and processed
sugars. Audette, once stricken with rheumatoid arthritis, cured
himself with the diet.
doctors Michael and Mary Eades have authored two books espousing
the low-carb approach, not just for weight loss but for a host of
degenerative diseases and a way of living, too. Protein Power (17)
and The Protein Power Lifeplan (18) encompass the Eades’ philosophy
and approach. As with Schwarzbein, the Eades’ work grew out of their
clinical experience with patients: What they learned in medical
school about diet and disease did not match up with their results
Ann Louise Gittleman (19) and Robert Crayhon (20) have also made
their literary contributions to the low-carb movement.
the clinical and biochemical evidence supporting the use of low-carb
diets, most medical doctors and dieticians feel that such diets
are dangerous. The specific fears center around misunderstandings
about ketosis and mistaken ideas about the supposed dangers of animal
fats and protein.
used as a weight loss program, low-carb diets (when carb intake
is less than 40 gms a day) result in ketosis, a process wherein
the body breaks down fat for energy. It is claimed that this state
is harmful and can lead to metabolic acidosis and death. While it
is true that ketosis occurs in people who are starving to death
as the body struggles to find fuel sources, it should be obvious
that starving people and low-carb people are not in the same situation
as the latter have abundant access to food, while the former do
not. Diabetics can also enter a state called ketoacidosis, but this
condition results from out of control blood sugar levels brought
on by excessive carbohydrate intake. Again, this situation is not
analogous to those following a low-carb diet (21).
also accuse low-carb diets of promoting heart disease and cancer.
The reason for this is that low-carb diets are invariably high in
animal fat and meat and it is believed that these contribute to
these illnesses. But several researchers have shown that naturally
saturated fats do not contribute to heart disease (22). For example,
an Indian study of over one million male railway workers found that
the meat-eating ones had a heart disease rate eight times less than
the vegetarian ones who ate much less saturated fat (23). Swedish
medical doctor and chemist Uffe Ravnskov, MD, PhD, has authored
The Cholesterol Myths (24) which exhaustively debunks the belief
that naturally saturated fats or cholesterol cause heart disease.
idea that animal fats or protein foods like red meat cause cancer
is also an idea that is not true. Lipid biochemist Mary Enig, PhD,
and her colleagues have shown that cancer rates correlate more closely
with refined vegetable oil and trans-fatty acid intake from foods
like margarine and vegetable shortening, not with animal fats (25).
An exhaustive review paper by Australian researchers showed conclusively
that red meat does not cause cancer (26). In contrast, some published
research fingers refined sugars and excessive carbohydrates as the
prime factors in cancer (27).
also claim that eating a lot of animal protein will cause osteoporosis
over time, but controlled studies have not borne this belief out.
(28) Another criticism is that the increased protein intake on low-carb
diets will hurt the kidneys or contribute to kidney stone formation
but, again, studies have not shown these notions to be true. (29)
believe that carbohydrates are necessary to maintain our energy
levels, but the body can utilize fatty acids for energy, as well
as convert protein into glucose on an as-needed basis. “The mitochondria
in our cells, the organelles that generate energy for us, are specifically
designed to use fat for energy,” said Dr. Allan. “Furthermore, many
organs prefer fat as an energy source--not glucose,” he concluded.
Indeed, the heart prefers naturally saturated fatty acids for its
energy needs, not glucose (30).
myth is that one needs to eat lots of fruits and vegetables to get
enough vitamins and minerals each day. But Dr. Allan counters that,
“While we do get some vitamins and minerals from plant foods, we
can get more of them from animal foods. Even more importantly, there
are many vitamins and cofactors that we only get from animal foods.”
Dr. Allan also commented that the public are misled into thinking
that animal foods do not provide many nutrients because food-nutrient
tables typically exclude animal foods from their lists, listing
only plant foods instead. The reality is, however, that animal foods
contain higher levels of almost every nutrient. Vitamins like A
and D are only found in animal foods and nutritional factors like
carnitine and CoQ10 are predominantly found in animal foods as well.
criticism is that low-carb diets do not have long-term published
research testifying to their effectiveness, but this is not really
true. Nutritional anthropological research of such population groups
as the Inuit and Masai have shown that these heavy meat and fat
eating peoples enjoy excellent health on their native diets (31).
Furthermore, Stefansson and his travel companion Karsten Andersen
ate nothing but a mixture of raw and cooked meat and fat for over
one year in a monitored experiment at New York’s Bellevue Hospital--with
no ill-effects noted. Andersen’s health actually improved! (32)
FAT OF THE LAND
the pronouncements to the contrary, low-carb diets have much to
offer beyond weight loss. Before dismissing them as dangerous food
fads, you should take a close and unbiased look at the clinical
and biochemical research that supports them to see what benefit
they could have for you.
About the Author:
late Stephen Byrnes, PhD, RNCP, is the author of Diet & Heart
Disease: Its NOT What You Think and Digestion Made Simple
(Whitman Books; 2001); and The Lazy Person’s Whole Foods Cookbook
(Ecclesia Life Mana; 2001).
Weston A Price Foundation, www.WestonAPrice.org.
An organization devoted to disseminating Weston Price’s research
and providing accurate nutrition information. Local chapters are
located in the USA, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom.
Optimal Diet, www.members.optushome.com.au/bartim/.
English translations of Dr. Kwasniewski’s books can be gotten from
Groves, PhD, www.second-opinions.co.uk
Ravnskov, MD, PhD, www.ravnskov.nu/cholesterol.htm
of the books mentioned in this article are available from your local
book seller or online.
AB Savarin. Physiologie du Gout. Dtsch. Ausgabe: Bruckmann Querschnitte,
Verlg.-Nr. 1152, F. Bruckmann KG, Munchen, 1962.
W. Banting. Letters on Corpulence. London, Harrison, 1864.
V. Stefansson. The Fat of the Land, New York, MacMillan Publishing,
WA Price. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, New Canaan, CT; Keats
R. Mackarness. Eat Fat and Grow Slim. Garden City, NY; Doubleday
& Co., 1959.
J Yudkin. Sweet and Dangerous. New York; Van Rees Press, 1972.
RC Atkins. Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution. New York; Avon Books,
S Fallon & MG Enig. “Tragedy and Hype: The Third International
Soy Symposium.” Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients, July,
August 2001. Posted at http://www.westonaprice.org.
(a) GD Foster, HR Wyatt, JO Hill, et al. Evaluation of the Atkins
Diet: A randomized controlled trial. Obes Res. 2001;9(suppl 3):O132;
(b) WS Yancy, JR Guyton, RP Bakst, et al. A randomized controlled
trial of a very-low-carbohydrate diet with nutritional supplements
versus a low-fat/low-calorie diet. Obes Res. 2001;9(suppl 3):PG17.
Summary article is posted at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/418266
C Allan and W Lutz. Life Without Bread. New Canaan, CT.; Keats Publishing,
J Kwasniewski and M Chylinski. Homo Optimus. Poland; WGP Publishing
Dr. Bogdan Sikorski, PhD, personal interview, June 12, 2002.
D. Schwarzbein and N Deville. The Schwarzbein Pricnciple. Florida;
HCI Communications, 1999.
J Ross. The Diet Cure. New York; Penguin Books, 2000.
R Audette and T Gilchrist. Neanderthin. New York; Jeremy Tarcher,
M & M Eades. Protein Power. New York; Bantam Books, 1997
M & M Eades. The Protein Power Lifeplan. New York; Bantam Books,
AL Gittleman. Eat Fat, Lose Weight. Illinois; Keats Publishing,
R Crayhon. The Carnitine Miracle. New York; M Evans Publishing,
RC Atkins. Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution. New York; Avon Books,
U Ravnskov. The Cholesterol Myths. New Trends Publishing; Washington,
D.C., 2000; MG Enig. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer on Fats
and Cholesterol Bethesda Press; Maryland, 2000, 76-81; R Smith and
E Pinckney. Diet, Blood Cholesterol, and Coronary Heart Disease:
A Critical Review of the Literature. Vector Enterprises; California,
1991; The Cholesterol Conspiracy. Warren Greene, Inc.; USA, 1991;
S Byrnes. Diet and Heart Disease: Its NOT What You Think. Whitman
Books; 2001, 25-52; GV Mann, ed. Coronary Heart Disease: The Dietary
Sense and Nonsense. Veritas Society; London, 1993.
SL Malhotra. Epidemiology of ischemic heart disease in India with
special reference to causation. Brit Hrt J, 29, 895-905, 1967.
U Ravnskov. The Cholesterol Myths. New Trends Publishing; Washington,
MG Enig et al. Dietary fat and cancer trends--a critique. Fed Proc,
26. JS Baghurst et al. Does red meat cause cancer? Aust J Nutr Diet,
(a) J. Witte et al. Diet and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer:
a case control study. Breast Canc Res & Treat, 1997, 42:243-251;
(b) S. Francheschi et al. Intake of macronutrients and risk for
breast cancer. Lancet, 1996, 347:1351-6; c) S. Francheschi et al.
Food groups and risk of colo-rectal cancer in Italy. Inter J Canc,
1997, 72:56-61; (d) S. Seely et al. Diet Related Diseases--The Modern
Epidemic (AVI Publishing; CT), 1985, 190-200; (e) WJ Lutz. The Colonisation
of Europe and our Western diseases. Med Hypoth 1995, 45:115-120.
H. Spencer and L. Kramer. Factors contributing to osteoporosis.
J Nutr, 1986, 116:316-319; Further studies of the effect of a high
protein diet as meat on calcium metabolism. Amer J Clin Nutr., 1983,
J. Dwyer et al. Diet, indicators of kidney disease, and late mortality
among older persons in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.
Amer J of Pub Health, 1994, 84:(8): 1299-1303.
ML Garg. Lipids, 24 (1989):334-339.
(a) WA Price, op cit., 59-73, 129-163; (b) HL Abrams. Vegetarianism:
an anthropological/nutritional evaluation. J Appl Nutr, 1980, 32:2:53-87.
V Stefansson. “Adventures in Diet.” Harper’s Magazine, November,
December, 1935, January 1936; CW Lieb. The effects on human beings
of a twelve months exclusive meat diet. JAMA, July 6, 1929, 20-22.
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