Cancer and Milk
Copyright © 2001
overwhelming majority of research suggests strongly that increased
milk consumption is associated with increased risk for prostate
Below are just some of the studies on this subject. For more information
Ecologic Study of Dietary Links to Prostate Cancer
prostate cancer, epidemiologic studies consistently show a positive
association with high consumption of milk, dairy products, and meats."
E., 'Nutritional factors in human cancers.', Adv Exp Med
also reported more frequent consumption of milk and other dairy
products and meat, but no significant difference was noted for vegetable
R, La Vecchia C, Decarli A, Negri E, Franceschi, 'Nutrition,
social factors and prostatic cancer in a Northern Italian population.',
S.Br J Cancer 1986 Jun;53(6):817-21
intake of meat and dairy products has been associated with greater
risk of prostate cancer, which may be related to their saturated
WC, 'Nutrition and cancer.', Salud Publica Mex 1997 Jul-Aug;39(4):298-309
correlations between foods and cancer mortality rates were particularly
strong in the case of meats and milk for breast cancer, milk for
prostate and ovarian cancer, and meats for colon cancer."
DP, Boyar AP, Wynder EL., 'International comparisons of mortality
rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and
per capita food consumption.' ,Cancer 1986 Dec 1;58(11):2363-71
appears to be a major determinant in the incidence of prostate cancer.
In a case-control study conducted in Athens, Greece, we found that
dairy products, butter and seed oils were positively associated
with risk of prostate cancer, whereas cooked and raw tomatoes were
C, Tzonou A, Lagiou P, Negri E, Trichopoulos D, Hsieh CC., 'Fraction
of prostate cancer incidence attributed to diet in Athens, Greece.',
Eur J Cancer Prev 2000 Apr;9(2):119-23
high in dairy products and meats are related to higher risk of prostate
cancer incidence or mortality in most ecologic, case-control, and
prospective studies. "
E., 'Dietary influences of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D in relation to
prostate cancer: a hypothesis.', Cancer Causes Control 1998
significantly increased risk of prostate cancer was associated with
skim milk as compared to whole milk."
MB, Laake P, Thelle DS., 'Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate
cancer: a prospective study of 25,708 Norwegian men.', Int J
Cancer 1997 Nov 27;73(5):634-8
significant associations were found with frequency of consumption
of meats, dairy products, fruits, or vegetables."
AW, McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM, Bjelke E, Gridley G, Wacholder S,
Chien HT, Blot WJ., 'Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer:
results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study.', Cancer
Res 1990 Nov 1;50(21):6836-40
positive associations were also seen between fatal prostate cancer
and the consumption of milk, cheese, eggs, and meat."
DA, Phillips RL, Choi W., 'Diet, obesity, and risk of fatal prostate
cancer.', Am J Epidemiol 1984 Aug;120(2):244-50
strongest and most consistent effects are positive associations
with animal products such as red meats, eggs and dairy foods, and
possibly by implication, fat."
G, Ireland P., 'Diet, nutrition and prostate cancer.', Int
J Cancer 1997;Suppl 10:13-7
major food groups, milk and dairy products as well as added lipids
were marginally positively associated with risk for prostate cancer."
A, Signorello LB, Lagiou P, Wuu J, Trichopoulos D, Trichopoulou
A., 'Diet and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in
Greece.', Int J Cancer 1999 Mar 1;80(5):704-8
products consistently have been associated with an increased risk
of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of this relationship remains
consumption of dairy products was associated with a 50 percent increased
risk of prostate cancer. "
JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, Yuen J, Adami HO, Wolk A., 'Dairy
products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate
cancer (Sweden)', Cancer Causes Control 1998 Dec;9(6):559-66
was a significant trend in risk as regards frequency of milk consumption:
compared with nondrinkers or occasional milk drinkers, the relative
risk (RR) was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, Cl, 0.7-1.9) for 1 or
2 glasses per day and 5.0 (95% Cl 1.5-16.6) for 2 or more glasses
Vecchia C, Negri E, D'Avanzo B, Franceschi S, Boyle P., 'Dairy
products and the risk of prostatic cancer.', Oncology 1991;48(5):406-10
consumption of calcium was related to advanced prostate cancer [multivariate
relative risk (RR), 2.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61-5.50
for intakes > or = 2000 mg/day versus < 500 mg/day; P, trend,
0.002] and metastatic prostate cancer (RR, 4.57; CI, 1.88-11.1;
P, trend, <0.001)."
E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett
WC., 'Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate
cancer.' ,Cancer Res 1998 Feb 1;58(3):442-7
the reported usual consumption of high-fat milk was associated with
increased risk (RR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.50). A greater reported
frequency of whole milk intake was similarly associated with increased
risk. Men who reported drinking three or more glasses of whole milk
daily had an RR of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.27 to 4.87), compared with men
who reported never drinking whole milk. "
C, Selenskas S, Natarajan N, Huben R., 'Beta-carotene and animal
fats and their relationship to prostate cancer risk. A case-control
study.', Cancer 1989 Aug 1;64(3):605-12
trends in risk were found for consumption of cured meat and milk
products (P-values 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). "
AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA., 'Animal products,
calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands
Cohort Study.', Br J Cancer 1999 Jun;80(7):1107-13
consumption was positively associated with only prostate cancer
mortality, and cheese consumption did not have a clear relationship
with any cause of death. "
DA., 'Animal product consumption and mortality because of all
causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer
in Seventh-day Adventists.', Am J Clin Nutr 1988 Sep;48(3 Suppl):739-48
risks (RRs) for prostate cancer computed by proportional hazards
regression were elevated for intake of beef [RR for highest to lowest
tertile of intake = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.4]
and milk (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.1), and for a summary variable
for intake of high-fat animal products (RR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.4)."
Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Myers BC, Hirohata T., 'Animal
fat consumption and prostate cancer: a prospective study in Hawaii.',
Epidemiology 1994 May;5(3):276-82
28 countries with more than five Kcal/day of tomatoes in the consumer
supply, a linear combination of non-fat milk (risk factor) and tomatoes
(risk reduction factor) was found to have the highest statistical
association with prostate cancer mortality rates for men over the
age of 35, with the Pearson regression coefficient (R2) for those
aged 65-74 years = 0.67 and p < 0.001. For the 13 countries with
fewer than six Kcal/day of tomatoes, non-fat milk had the highest
association (R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001 for men aged 65-74 years).
For 41 countries combined, the non-fat portion of milk had the highest
association with prostate cancer mortality rates (R2 = 0.73, p <
0.001 for men aged 65-74 years). "
results support the results of several cohort studies which found
the non-fat portion of milk to have the highest association with
prostate cancer, likely due to the calcium, and tomatoes to reduce
the risk of prostate cancer, most likely due to lycopene."
WB., 'An ecologic study of dietary links to prostate cancer.',
Altern Med Rev 1999 Jun;4(3):162-9
including testosterone and insulin-like growth factor, and nutritional
factors, especially meat, fat, and dairy intake, have been linked
to greater risk of disease. "
JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL., 'What causes prostate cancer?
A brief summary of the epidemiology.' Semin Cancer Biol 1998
results showed increased risks of prostate cancer associated with
beer drinking, meat, milk and fruit consumption, after adjusting
for major confounders."
Stefani E, Fierro L, Barrios E, Ronco A., 'Tobacco, alcohol,
diet and risk of prostate cancer.', Tumori 1995 Sep-Oct;81(5):315-20
stopped drinking milk many years ago when I realized that
it was the major cause of hemorrhoid problems that plagued
me as a young man in my late 20's. Since that time, my beverage
of choice has been pure water. I drank distilled water for
many years but then changed to a good filtered water when
I began to have concerns
about the long-term benefits of distilled.
Throughout this entire website, statements are made pertaining to
the properties and/or functions of food and/or nutritional products.
These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration
and these materials and products are not intended to diagnose, treat,
cure or prevent any disease.