and Forced Vaccination: What Every American Needs to Know
Barbara Loe Fisher
Special Report Winter 2002 in The Vaccine Reaction
Published by the National
Vaccine Information Center
this time of great sadness, fear and confusion,
Americans have a choice to
make: either we defend the individual freedoms our forefathers fought and died
to give us,
or we sacrifice those freedoms and let the terrorists win.
What we choose to do will define who we are as a nation
for many years to
- Barbara Loe Fisher
The terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001
and the subsequent threats of biological warfare against US citizens have prompted
calls by public health officials to prepare for mass vaccination campaigns for
anthrax and smallpox.1,2 National vaccination programs targeting civilians, including
children, are being proposed in model state legislation that would give public
health officials the power to use the state militia to enforce vaccination during
state-declared health emergencies.3,4 While it is critical for the US to have
a sound, workable plan to respond to an act of bioterrorism, as well as enough
safe and effective vaccines stockpiled for every American who wants to use them,
there are legitimate concerns about a plan which forces citizens to use vaccines
without their voluntary, informed consent.
All mass vaccination campaigns result in casualties because every vaccine, like
every drug, carries an inherent risk of injury or death.5,6,7,8,9 Some individuals
are genetically or biologically more vulnerable to vaccine reactions than others,10
but there are few reliable biomarkers to predict who they are5,6,7,8,9 which is
why legally protecting the informed consent rights of all citizens becomes a moral
imperative. The human right to be fully informed about all known and unknown risks,
as well as benefits, of any medical intervention and make a voluntary decision
about whether to take the risk, has been the centerpiece of bioethics ever since
the Nuremberg Code was adopted after World War II 11 and the doctrine of informed
consent was introduced into U.S. case law in 1957.12
In evaluating the potential risk of a bioterrorism attack with real, as well as
unpredictable, risks of exposing large numbers of children and adults to a prophylactic
mass vaccination program for smallpox, some health officials have already concluded
that the risks of mass vaccination outweigh the theoretical benefits.13,14,15
However, even in the event of a proven biological weapons assault and smallpox
outbreak, sacrifice of the informed consent ethic would result in state-forced
vaccine-induced injury and death of a biologically vulnerable minority in service
to the majority, posing serious constitutional and moral questions.
Although there have been suggestions that federal vaccine testing regulations
should be curtailed in an effort to get a national supply of smallpox vaccine
produced quickly,16,17 no mass vaccination campaign should be initiated without
sound scientific evidence proving the vaccines to be used are safe and effective
in protecting against an organism that may be used in a bioterrorism attack. This
is particularly important if the organism, such as the smallpox virus, may have
been genetically engineered to be vaccine and treatment resistant.18 Untested
vaccines have the potential to give the illusion of safety and efficacy to the
public when, in fact, they may cause far greater harm and be far less effective
The old live vaccinia virus vaccine for smallpox was never tested for safety or
efficacy in controlled trials prior to mandates19,20 and it may have caused more
reactions, injuries and deaths than any vaccine ever used by humans on a mass
basis. Those recently vaccinated become infected with vaccinia virus and can transmit
the virus to others, leading to injury and death for some.13,20,21,22,23,24,25
Unless the old vaccine for smallpox or a newly formulated vaccine is fully tested
for safety and efficacy before being released for public use, legally and ethically
the vaccine would have to be considered experimental and the mandated use of it
a state-enforced national scientific experiment.
Health Different Today: Scientific evaluation of the mass use of any new vaccine
must be viewed in context with the other vaccines Americans are getting today
and in consideration of the general health of different segments of our population.
The most significant difference between the health of the U.S. population today
compared to 1971, when routine vaccination for smallpox was halted in America,
is that the numbers of Americans suffering with autoimmune and neurological disorders
has increased significantly.21,26,27
In the past three decades, the numbers of children and young adults with asthma,
learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have
doubled; diabetes has tripled; and autism has increased 200 to 600 percent in
nearly every state.29,30, 31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38 Live vaccinia virus vaccine
for smallpox, for example, would be given to children already receiving 37 doses
of 11 other live virus and killed bacterial vaccines, including diphtheria, pertussis,
tetanus (DTaP), polio, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), haemophilus influenzae B,
hepatitis B, chicken pox, and pneumococcal vaccines.39 In 1971, most American
children were only receiving DPT, polio, measles and rubella vaccines.40
In addition, today there are many more adults suffering with HIV, lupus,41 herpes42
and other diseases affecting the immune system. Without appropriate safety studies
evaluating the risks of an old or a new vaccine in the real world of today, there
is no reliable way to predict the potential negative impact on the health of children
and adults, especially on the tens of millions of Americans already suffering
with chronic autoimmune and neurological disorders.
Biological warfare is not a new phenomenon. History is full of examples of warring
factions trying to weaken each others troops or civilian populations by
making them sick. From the ancient Greeks and Romans, who polluted the water supplies
of their enemies with dead animals, to warriors in medieval times who catapulted
corpses of people infected with bubonic plague into the castles of their enemies,
to European conquerors who came to the New World and used smallpox contaminated
blankets to kill native Indians with no natural immunity to smallpox, there is
a long history of man using disease as a weapon. 43
Modern biological weapons using lethal microorganisms were developed in the 1930s
by Japanese scientists, including aerosolized anthrax that was designed to be
used in a specially designed fragmentation bomb. US and British scientists developed
biological weapons during World War II using anthrax, botulinum toxin, encephalitis
virus, staph enterotoxin and other deadly organisms. Even though the US has had
biological weapons capability, the US has never used biological weapons on any
nation and, since the Biological Weapons Convention in 1972, has supported a worldwide
ban on development and use of biological weapons.
There is evidence, however, that other nations have not stopped making biological
weapons and that the Soviet Union, in particular, may have weaponized smallpox
virus after 1972 in large quantities and that some of the virus may have been
supplied to other countries such as Iraq, North Korea and China. There are still
outstanding questions about whether Soviet scientists succeeded in making the
smallpox virus a more lethal weapon by genetically engineering it so that any
vaccine or drug would be ineffective. 1,18
Smallpox is a highly contagious, serious disease caused by the variola virus,
a double stranded DNA virus which belongs to the genus orthopoxvirus that includes
cowpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia. Poxviruses primarily affect the skin and cause
disease in both humans (smallpox) and animals (swinepox, camelpox, sheeppox, goatpox,
History: The first recorded cases of smallpox were in Asia in the first century
A.D. but there is evidence the disease was present in China, India and Africa
before that time. Smallpox was rarely seen in Europe until the Crusades, when
Crusaders invaded the Holy Land during the Middle Ages and brought the disease
back home with them. The Americas did not see smallpox until the Spanish invaders
brought the disease to native Indian populations, who had no experience with the
virus at all, which resulted in high mortality and significant destruction of
tribes. In 18th century England, smallpox caused one in 10 deaths and was the
leading cause of death in children.43,46
After worldwide mass vaccination campaigns in the 20th century, in 1979 the World
Health Organization declared wild smallpox virus eradicated from the earth. The
only remaining smallpox virus at that time was reported to exist in secure labs
in the Soviet Union and the United States. However, since then, there have been
reports that Soviet scientists developed the capacity to produce large quantities
of the virus modified to survive delivery by missile warhead and that some of
these stocks were supplied to countries hostile to the US.47 In addition, there
is the possibility that the smallpox virus has been genetically or otherwise biologically
altered to make it an even more lethal bioterrorism weapon, which may limit the
effectiveness of the vaccinia virus vaccine used to prevent smallpox in the past.18,48
As A Bioterrorist Weapon: Variola is a relatively stable virus in the natural
environment and may retain its infectivity for as long as 24 to 48 hours if it
is aerosolized and not exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. 49 There are
several delivery routes that have been discussed if smallpox were to be used as
a bioterrorist weapon to cause large numbers of infections in a population: release
of the virus into a building, subway or airplane ventilation system or an area-wide
drop of the virus by a plane or missile. Each of these theoretical scenarios requires
that the terrorists: (1) have succeeded in obtaining the smallpox virus from one
of the official laboratory storage facilities in the US or Russia or from a country
which has secretly obtained the virus; (2) have the technical expertise and laboratory
facilities to culture and maintain the viability of the virus; (3) have the ability
to transport the virus in liquid or powder form without destroying its effectiveness;
(4) have the technology to deliver it to large numbers of susceptible people.
Some have hypothesized that several volunteer infected carriers could
silently transmit the disease,18 perhaps in large cities during the first week
of the contagious period before the characteristic smallpox lesions appeared on
their faces and limbs. Theoretically, this could happen although it would not
be as effective as delivery of the organism to large numbers of people in a wide
area. Still, even one person carrying smallpox could cause others to become infected
who, in turn, could infect others. Reportedly, in 1970 a single smallpox infected
man returning to Germany from Pakistan caused the direct or indirect infection
of 19 others in a German hospital.51 In 1970, virtually everyone in Europe and
the U.S. had been vaccinated against smallpox.
Variola Virus: The variola virus which causes smallpox is an orthopoxvirus
and has not been documented to infect animals or insects. Cowpox, monkey pox and
vaccinia are the three other orthopoxviruses and all three of these viruses can
cause disease in both animals and humans.49
Kinds of Smallpox: There are two kinds of smallpox: variola minor and variola
major. Variola minor causes a milder case of the disease resulting in a case-fatality
ratio of less than one percent. Variola major is much more serious with a case
fatality of between 20 and 30 percent. The variola virus causing both variations
of smallpox are biologically and immunologically indistinguishable from each other
in the laboratory and a mild case of variola major can look like a case of variola
minor. Endemic variola major was eradicated from the US in 1926 and variola minor
disappeared from the US in the 1940s.19,22
and Contagion: According to the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, Historically,
the rapidity of smallpox contagion was generally slower than for such diseases
as measles and chickenpox. Patients spread smallpox primarily to household members
and friends; large outbreaks in schools, for example, were uncommon.49
Face-to-face contact with an infected person is usually required to transmit smallpox,
which is spread from one person to another through nasal secretions and saliva
by coughing and sneezing.52 A person usually becomes infected by inhaling the
virus, which enters the respiratory tract and multiplies there and in the spleen,
bone marrow and lymph nodes. The liver, spleen and lymph nodes can become enlarged.19,49
into direct contact with the secretions from open smallpox skin lesions can also
spread the disease. Secretions from smallpox lesions can contaminate clothing,
bedding, or other materials, which have been used by an infected person, so disinfection
of articles used by an infected person is necessary. Hot water containing hypochlorite
bleach and quaternary ammonia has been used to decontaminate clothing, bedding
and cleaning surfaces possibly exposed to the virus and formaldehyde has been
used to fumigate contaminated areas.52
Contagion for One or Two Weeks: A person with smallpox is infectious from
a day before the rash appears (about 10 to 14 days after infection) until all
lesions have healed and the scabs have fallen off. In the incubation period of
the disease during the two weeks prior to the appearance of a fever and flu-like
symptoms, there is no evidence that the smallpox virus sheds and can be transmitted
to others and the person looks and feels healthy. Only after the fever and flu-like
symptoms begin and then disappear before the outbreak of a rash, will the person
be highly contagious and able to infect others through the release of virus in
the mouth, throat and respiratory tract. The large amounts of virus shed from
the skin lesions can be infectious but are not as infectious as the virus released
by the respiratory tract.49.52
Although persons suffering from variola major, the more severe smallpox, are visibly
sick and often bedridden even before the outbreak of the rash, those who have
variola minor, the milder smallpox, may not know they are sick until the rash
and lesions erupt. Therefore, unsuspecting carriers of a less severe form of smallpox
could spread the disease more easily during the early part of the contagious period.
are estimates that one infected person may transmit the disease to between 5 and
10 other persons in populations with no natural or vaccine-induced immunity.52
Those persons can, in turn, infect 5 to 10 others and that is how an epidemic
and Symptoms: The incubation period of smallpox from the time of infection
to the time that symptoms begin to appear is about 12 to 14 days at which time
the person develops a fever of 102 to 106 F., extreme fatigue, severe headache
and back pain, and, occasionally, abdominal pain and vomiting. After 3 or 4 days
the fever goes down and the patient may appear to recover but then a rash appears
on the face and forearms and spreads to the trunk, legs, and, sometimes, appears
on the palms and soles of the feet.20,22,49,52
On the third or fourth day after the rash appears, hard lumps (papules) form under
the skin. These papules swell and turn into vesicles (sacs under the skin filled
with fluid) that eventually turn into pustules (open skin lesions containing clear,
then cloudy fluid filled with pus). A fever often accompanies the rash and formation
of papules and vesicles. The pustules, which can resemble chicken pox lesions
but are much deeper in the skin, also develop and ulcerate in the mucous membranes
of the nose, mouth and throat and release large amounts of virus into the mouth
and throat. 20,22,49,52
The deep ulcerative skin lesions eventually form crusts and scabs that usually
fall off within three weeks after the beginning of the illness. The patient can
be left with small scars or deep pits in the skin if the sebaceous glands of the
skin are destroyed.20,22,49,52
Types of Smallpox: A milder illness may occur both in those who have been
vaccinated and those who have not been vaccinated, including cases that include
a rash but no eruption of any lesions (variola sine eruptione). But in another
rare form of smallpox, known as malignant smallpox, the disease remains in the
rash stage and pustular lesions do not erupt. Malignant smallpox is almost always
fatal, as is another rare form of smallpox, known as hemorrhagic smallpox. A person
with hemorrhagic smallpox develops fever, bone marrow depression, a drop in platelets
(thrombocytopenia) and uncontrollable bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes
leading to death.22,49
and Mortality: The smallpox lesions can become infected, leading to bacterial
superinfections usually caused by staphylococcus aureus. Other complications include
conjunctivitis (inflammation of the membrane covering the eyeball); bacterial
pneumonia; viral arthritis; sepsis (blood infection); encephalomyelitis (inflammation
of the brain) and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone). Permanent damage can
include blindness, brain damage, and severe facial and body scarring. In the past,
smallpox killed between one percent and 30 percent of those infected, depending
upon whether the person had variola minor or variola major, and mortality was
highest in infants and the elderly.19,22,46,49
Can Occur: Before smallpox was eradicated in 1977, doctors sometimes confused
chicken pox with smallpox. During the first two to three days of the rash, it
is almost impossible to distinguish between the two diseases. The main symptomatic
difference between the two is that smallpox lesions are all in the same stage
of development while chickenpox lesions can be in various stages of development
on different parts of the body. Also, the smallpox rash primarily affects the
face and limbs of the body and the chickenpox rash is primarily on the trunk of
the body and almost never affects the palms of the hand or soles of the feet like
smallpox. Lab tests can distinguish between a herpes group infection (chicken
pox) and a poxvirus infection (smallpox).19,22,52
Other diseases that can mimic smallpox are eczema vaccinatum, eczema herpeticum,
rickettsialpox, drug reactions, contact dermatitis, and erythema multiforme (inflammation
of the skin and mucous membranes). Meningococcemia, typhus and hemorrhagic fevers
can also be mistaken for the more severe fulminant, hemorrhagic smallpox.22
Human monkeypox, which occurs in Africa, is difficult to distinguish from smallpox.
Also, sometimes disseminated vaccinia virus infection (from the vaccine) can be
confused with smallpox.19
Lab Diagnosis: Lab detection of smallpox can occur within a few hours but
definitive identification requires growth of the virus in cell culture or on the
chorioallantoic egg membrane and characterization of strains by use of biologic
assays, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.22,49
for Smallpox Limited: Vaccinia virus vaccine given up to four days after exposure
to the virus reportedly can provide protection or lessen the severity of smallpox.49
Antibiotics will not cure smallpox because it is a viral, not a bacterial, infection.
There are a number of anti-viral medications being investigated, such as cidofovir,
but there is no drug currently on the market licensed as a specific treatment
Like with chicken pox, preventing bacterial infection of the skin lesions is important.
Sterile sheets, clothing and other sterile procedures can help reduce complicating
bacterial skin infections. Antibiotics to treat secondary infections are given
by injection or orally as topical antibiotics are not used. Antihistamines may
reduce itching and scratching of the lesions and help prevent their spread to
other parts of the body, such as the eyes.22,52
VACCINIA VIRUS (SMALLPOX) VACCINE
Early History of Smallpox Prevention: The idea of deliberately exposing
a healthy person to biological matter from smallpox lesions of an infected person
in order to confer immunity dates back to China several centuries B.C., when Chinese
doctors dried and ground up the crusts of smallpox scabs and used tubes to blow
the material into the noses of healthy persons. In Africa, Asia Minor and parts
of Europe, people swallowed smallpox scabs or had doctors scratch smallpox lymph
into their skin (variolation).46
In 17th and 18th century England and America, it was common practice to scrape
smallpox pus from lesions of a person infected with smallpox and then scrape it
onto the skin of healthy children and adults in the hope of causing a mild, rather
than a severe, form of smallpox. This process became known as variolation. Although
smallpox variolation worked for some, it left one in 300 dead and others with
severe enough smallpox that they were permanently scarred or blinded from the
intervention. Many others were unknowingly infected with syphilis, tuberculosis
and hepatitis because the biological matter from smallpox lesions was taken from
persons also suffering from those serious diseases. Variolation also contributed
to the spread of smallpox throughout populations.46
Jenner Uses Cowpox Virus: In 1796, British physician Edward Jenner observed
that milkmaids who contracted the generally mild cowpox never came down with the
more severe smallpox. (Cowpox is a disease of the teats and udders of cows and
when cowpox infects humans it causes low-grade fever, lymph node swelling, and
superficial lesions that are much milder than smallpox and heal without scarring.
Sometimes cowpox can cause encephalitis and, in persons with a history of eczema,
there is a risk of serious infection).22
Jenner experimented on an eight year old boy. He infected him with cowpox by scraping
pus from lesions of a child infected with cowpox onto the skin of the boy. Later,
Jenner twice challenged the boys immunity to smallpox by scraping pus from
the lesions of a person with smallpox onto the boys skin. The boy never
came down with smallpox and Jenner widely promoted his discovery and advocated
cowpox inoculation as a prevention for smallpox.46
Virus Emerges: Eventually, Jenners method for preventing smallpox was
modified and standardized for mass production by the pharmaceutical industry.
Apparently, as Jenner refined the cowpox inoculation process, a new virus called
vaccinia evolved. To this day, it is unknown exactly how the vaccinia virus came
into being but theories are that it is a weakened form of the smallpox or cowpox
virus or, more likely, a hybrid of the two viruses.19,47,53,54 Jenners smallpox
prevention method became known as vaccination and was endorsed by
government health officials in Europe and America in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Virus Vaccine Never Tested: The currently licensed vaccine for smallpox contains
live vaccinia virus, a double stranded virus with a broad host range. According
to Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine (1994), Vaccinia virus
never underwent controlled trials to establish safety and efficacy before licensing.
Nevertheless, the vaccine was highly effective, despite considerable adverse effects.19
are now multiple strains of vaccinia virus with varying degrees of virulence for
humans and animals. Scientists working on new vaccines for diseases, such as HIV,
have created recombinant vaccinia viruses from several strains of vaccinia virus.19,20,53
Vaccine From 1970s Used Calves: When vaccinia virus was used to make
smallpox vaccine in the past, it was prepared from the vesicle fluid taken from
live calves deliberately infected with vaccinia virus. After the calves were slaughtered,
the pustules were scraped to recover fluid and the scrapings were freeze dried.
This is how the approximately 15.4 million doses of smallpox vaccine currently
stockpiled in the US was manufactured by Wyeth Laboratories in the 1970s.21,47
used calf vesicle fluid containing a seed virus derived from a New York City Board
of Health strain of vaccinia virus.20 This stockpiled vaccine, known as Dryvax,
contains trace amounts of polymyxcin B sulfate, streptomycin sulfate, chlortetracycline
hydrochloride and neomycin sulfate, as well as glycerin (50%) and phenol (.25%).55
Phenol is an extremely poisonous compound obtained by distillation of coal tar
and used as an antimicrobial. Ingestion or absorption of phenol through the skin
can cause colic, weakness, collapse and local irritation and corrosion.56
Have Deteriorated: Reportedly, Dryvax stockpiles have been stored in glass
tubes in the form of freeze dried crystals that would be mixed with a liquid diluent
just before vaccination using a bifurcated needle that allows droplets of the
vaccine to be scratched onto the skin. In 1999 the CDC discovered that some of
the U.S. Dryvax smallpox vaccine stockpiles had badly deteriorated: rubber stoppers
on the glass storage tubes had decayed and vacuum pressure had been lost while
the liquid diluent had changed color and there were only one million bifurcated
needles to administer more than 15 million doses.57
Old Vaccine Now Being Tested in Volunteers: However, in response to the
fear generated after September 11 that smallpox virus stored in the Soviet Union
may have fallen into the hands of terrorists in other countries, some of these
old stocks of vaccinia virus vaccine are being diluted to one in ten or one in
five and given to volunteers at the University of Maryland, St. Louis University,
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Baylor College of Medicine to test
its effectiveness.14,15,58 The goal is to increase the numbers of doses of old
vaccinia virus vaccine currently available in order to buy time for new vaccine
Vaccines To Use Different Cell Tissues: According to the Working Group on
Civilian Biodefense, The traditional method for producing vaccines on the
scarified flank of a calf is no longer acceptable because the product inevitably
contains some microbial contaminants, however stringent the purification measures.49
New vaccinia virus vaccines reportedly will not use vaccinia virus cultured from
calf vesicle fluid but will be grown in laboratories using other cell tissues
such as human fibroblasts (from fetal connective tissue cells).21
the June 22, 2001 MMWR, the CDC confirms that previous methods of vaccine production
using calves are no longer being used and that vaccinia virus for new production
of smallpox vaccine must be grown using a Food and Drug Administration approved
cell culture substrate. The CDC indicates that new cell-culture vaccinia virus
vaccine will be evaluated for safety and efficacy by direct comparison with Dryvax
using appropriate animal models, serologic and cell-mediated immunity methods
and cutaneous indicators of successful vaccination.20
Level for Protection Unknown: Live vaccinia virus vaccine produces neutralizing
antibodies that are genus specific and cross-protective for orthopoxviruses (monkeypox,
cowpox, variola). According to the CDC, the efficacy of vaccinia vaccine to prevent
smallpox has never been measured precisely during controlled trials and the level
of antibody required for protection against smallpox infection is unknown. The
level of antibody required for protection against vaccinia virus infection is
also unknown. However, more than 95 percent of first-time vaccinees are reported
to experience neutralizing or hemagglutination inhibition antibody.20
of Immunity Estimates Vary: According to the CDC, the live vaccinia virus
vaccine is protective for five to 10 years.20 The CDC recommends that lab and
medical personnel at high risk of being exposed to vaccinia viruses be revaccinated
every 10 years.24 However, analysis of a 1902-1903 smallpox outbreak in Liverpool,
England as well as a study conducted at the University of Massachusetts Medical
Center and published in a 1996 article in the Journal of Virology suggests that
varying degrees of immunity from vaccinia virus vaccination may persist for up
to 50 years.59,60 If true, then the oldest half of the US population, which was
vaccinated before 1970, may have some remaining immunity to the smallpox virus.
Virus Vaccination Procedure: The method of vaccinia virus vaccination is to
withdraw reconstituted vaccine from the vial with a sterile bifurcated (forked)
needle, then release a droplet of vaccine onto the skin over the deltoid muscle
in the upper arm; then repeatedly press (15 times) the forked needle into the
superficial layer of skin covered with vaccine hard enough to draw traces of blood.
A loose, porous bandage or gauze held with tape is then applied to help prevent
the person from touching the vaccination site and transferring the live virus
to other parts of the body or to other persons.20,52
Two to five days after inoculation, a red papule (lump) at the site should appear.
On day five or six, the papule should swell and fill with fluid (turn into a vesicle).
Between days seven and 11, the vesicle should turn into a pustule (become an open,
pus-filled lesion). About two weeks after vaccination, the pustule dries and develops
a crust that falls off by the end of the third week and leaves the characteristic
smallpox scar on the skin.22
If a person is already partially immune to smallpox (either through previous experience
with the disease or vaccination), there may be an accelerated process that includes
a papule that appears within 3 days, vesiculates in 5 to 7 days, and heals with
little scarring. If only a papule develops without vesiculation and without leaving
some kind of scar, it is considered a failed vaccination and many times the person
is revaccinated in an attempt to get a Jennerian vesicle that is considered
proof of successful vaccination.22
VACCINE REACTION RATE VERY HIGH
The live vaccinia virus vaccine to prevent smallpox may be the most highly reactive
vaccine that has ever been used in humans. As with most vaccines, when complications
occurred with the vaccinia virus vaccine, they were quite similar to the complications
of the disease they were designed to prevent.
According to the World Health Organization existing vaccines have proven
efficacy but also have a high incidence of adverse side-effects. The risk of adverse
events is sufficiently high that vaccination is not warranted if there is no or
little real risk of exposure. Vaccine administration is warranted in individuals
exposed to the virus or facing a real risk of exposure. A safer vaccinia-based
vaccine, produced in cell culture is expected to become available shortly. There
is also interest in developing monoclonal antivariola antibody for passive immunization
of exposed and infected individuals, which could also be safely administered to
persons infected with HIV.52
70,000 Severe Reactions Requiring VIG: According to the Working Group on Civilian
Biodefense It has been estimated that if 1 million persons were vaccinated
[with live vaccinia virus vaccine], as many as 250 persons would experience adverse
reactions of a type that would require administration of VIG [vaccinia immune
Using these vaccine risk estimates would yield a serious vaccine reaction rate
of 1 in 4,000 persons. This would mean that out of 280 million Americans who receive
the vaccinia virus vaccine there could be approximately 70,000 persons who would
experience reactions severe enough to require VIG.
VIG is ineffective in treating postvaccinal encephalitis.20 Estimates are that
postvaccinal encephalitis following live vaccinia vaccine occurs in between 1
in 81,000 to 1 in 345,000 persons receiving their first smallpox vaccination,20,22
which would add thousands of cases of postvaccinal encephalitis in the initial
mass vaccination of all Americans, for whom VIG treatment is not beneficial.
Neurological Reactions in the Young: One 1992 study by the State Research
Institute of Standardization and Control of Medical Biologics in Russia reported
a neurological complication rate of 1 in 3,200 persons aged five years and older
who received a first live vaccinia virus vaccination.61 Approximately 120 million
Americans are between the ages of 5 and 35 according to the US 2000 census. If
all those Americans were first-time vaccinees, approximately 37,500 of them could
suffer a neurological reaction.
Vaccinia Virus A Risk: The vaccinia virus vaccine has not been used on a mass
basis in the U.S. since the early 1970s so the virus is not circulating
in our population and no one under age 30 has had any experience with it. Because
live vaccinia virus vaccine can cause vaccinia viral infection in the vaccine
recipient or in a close contact of the recently vaccinated person, those who get
vaccinated will be exposing themselves and others to the vaccinia virus and potential
CDC reports that one 10-state survey revealed that transmission of vaccinia virus
infection occurred in 27 per million total vaccinations (1 in 37,000 vaccinations)
and 44 percent of those contact cases occurred among children. Approximately 60
percent of contact transmissions in the survey resulted in the inadvertent inoculation
of otherwise healthy persons. About 30 percent of the eczema vaccinatum cases
were a result of contact transmission.20,62
Vaccinia Virus Vaccine Reactions: Fever, fatigue and irritability are common,
especially in children, during the vesicular and pustular stages and swollen lymph
glands may persist for months after vaccinia virus vaccination.22
Inadvertent inoculation at other body sites: According to the CDC: Inadvertent
inoculation at other sites is the most frequent complication of vaccinia vaccination
and accounts for approximately half of all complications of primary vaccination
and revaccination. Autoinoculation occurs when the recently vaccinated person
touches or scratches the lesion at the vaccination site and transfers the live
vaccinia virus to other parts of the body, such as the face, eyelid, nose, mouth,
genitalia and rectum, and more lesions form. Most lesions heal without therapy
but vaccinia immunoglobulin (VIG) can be used when the eye is involved, unless
there is inflammation of the cornea (because VIG can increase corneal scarring).
The CDC estimates inadvertent inoculation occurs in 1 in 1,890 first time vaccinations.20
According to the CDC, approximately 70 percent of children experience temperatures
under 100 F. for 4-14 days after the first vaccination and 15-20 percent will
experience temperatures under 102 F. After revaccination, 35 percent of children
experience temperatures under 100 F. and 5 percent experience temperatures under
102 F. Fever is less common in adults. 20
Rashes and Hives: A raised rash (erythema) or hives (urticaria) can occur
approximately 10 days after a first vaccination, which usually does not involve
a fever and resolves within two to four days. Sometimes erythema and urticaria
can be confused with generalized vaccinia. 20
More Severe Reactions: Moderate and severe immune and neurological complications
of live vaccinia vaccination occur more than ten times more often among first-time
vaccinees than among those who are revaccinated and are more frequent among infants.
20 Well known serious complications of live vaccinia virus vaccination include
progressive vaccinia, postvaccinal encephalomyelitis; eczema vaccinatum; and generalized
vaccinia, and reaction rates for these serious vaccine complications vary.
Progressive Vaccinia (vaccinia gangrenosa, vaccinia necrosum): When the
live vaccinia virus continues to grow in the body and healing of the primary vaccinal
lesion caused by smallpox vaccination does not occur, there can be a slowly progressive
destruction of large areas of skin (necrosis), subcutaneous tissue, viscera (internal
organs) and bone. Progressive vaccinia almost always occurs in persons with a
severe immune deficiency caused by cancer, radiation or chemotherapy, and AIDS
or other serious immune system disorders such as lupus. Those who develop progressive
vaccinia almost always die within six months.19,20,22,49
In the past, it was estimated that this reaction occurred in 1 in 1 million to
1.6 in 1 million vaccinations with a case fatality ratio of almost 90 percent.20,22,53
However, this severe reaction to live vaccinia virus vaccine will most likely
occur more often today if mass smallpox vaccination campaigns are introduced in
populations with a high incidence of undiagnosed HIV/AIDS or other immune system
Postvaccinal Encephalitis/Encephalomyelitis: Inflammation of the brain
can develop two to 25 days after vaccination.22 It occurs most frequently in children
under age one or two years and in older children and adults receiving their first
smallpox vaccination.20,53,61 Symptoms can appear suddenly and include fever,
vomiting, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, convulsions, hemiplegia (partial
paralysis), aphasia (loss of speech), loss of consciousness and coma. Recovery
is often incomplete, with residual brain damage and paralysis, which occurs most
frequently in children under two years old.53 Death rates following post vaccinal
encephalitis range from 25 percent to 50 percent of patients, usually within a
week of onset.20,53 Conservative estimates of frequency range from 1 in 345,00022
to 1 in 81,000 persons receiving their first-vaccination.20
Eczema Vaccinatum: This reaction is seen in persons with a history of eczema
or other types of chronic skin conditions like contact dermatitis. The person
develops high fever, swollen lymph nodes and widespread inflammation and appearance
of lesions on areas of skin previously affected by eczema that can spread to areas
of healthy skin. Especially severe cases can occur when persons, who have active
eczema or a history of eczema, come in contact with those recently vaccinated
with live vaccinia virus.20,22 The CDC states Eczema vaccinatum might be
more severe among contacts than among vaccinated persons.20 Eczema vaccinatum
can be mild and self limited but also can be severe and fatal. Estimates of frequency
ranges from 1 in 100,00019 to 1 in about 26,000 first time vaccinations.20
Generalized Vaccinia: This reaction involves a vesicular rash similar to
but milder than smallpox that can be localized around the vaccination site or
cover the body and can occur among healthy persons without underlying illness.
It is most serious in those who have underlying immunosuppressive illness. The
CDC estimates that 241.5 cases of generalized vaccinia per 1 million first time
vaccinations occurs (about 1 in 4,100 vaccinations).20
Death: Death from vaccinia vaccination is most often the result of postvaccinal
encephalitis or progressive vaccinia. Death has been estimated to occur in 1 in
1 million vaccinated persons.22
Serious Vaccinia Vaccine Reaction Reports: There are a number of other serious
vaccinia vaccine reactions reported in the medical literature, including progressive
or generalized vaccinia in persons with genital herpes,63,64,65 HIV,66 and active
acne;67 development of skin cancer;68 basal cell carcinoma in a smallpox vaccination
scar;69 discoid lupus erythematosus in a smallpox vaccination scar;70 diabetes;71
thrombocytopenia purpura;72 cardiac complications leading to heart damage;73,74
clubfoot in babies whose mothers were vaccinated in the first trimester;75
and chromosomal breakage and changes in children after revaccination.76,77
VIG Treatment and Prevention of Vaccine Complications: Treatment for and
prevention of vaccinia complications is limited. Vaccine Immune Globulin (VIG),
which is composed of preformed antibody to vaccinia virus taken from the blood
of persons who have already been vaccinated with vaccinia virus, has been used
in cases of autoinoculation of the eye, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum
and generalized vaccinia. VIG is of no use in cases of postvaccinal encephalitis.20
has also been used to try to prevent serious vaccine reactions by giving persons
with contraindications (such as immune suppression) VIG before vaccination.20,49.
Although VIG has been useful in treating some cases of vaccinia vaccine reactions,
there is no assurance that VIG will either prevent or modify the course of every
The stockpiled supply of old VIG reportedly has deteriorated over the years and
is limited.26,57 There is not enough VIG to treat the number of serious vaccine
reactions that are estimated would occur if all of the 15.4 million doses of stockpiled
Dryvax vaccine were used.14,20,26,49 The blood from volunteers in current Dryvax
trials using diluted old vaccine may be able to be utilized to make more VIG.14,15,58
According to Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, contraindications
to vaccinia virus vaccine include: B or T cell immune system disorders, eczema,
pregnancy, disorders of the central nervous system, neoplasms of the reticuloendothelial
system, and use of immunosuppressive drugs.19
CDC now lists the following contraindications in the absence of an emergency (actual
exposure to smallpox):20
who experience anaphylactic reactions to polymyxin B sulfate, streptomycin sulfate,
chlortetracycline hydrochloride and neomycin sulfate should not be vaccinated
with eczema or other skin conditions: Vaccinia vaccine should not be administered
to persons with eczema of any degree, those with a past history of eczema, those
whose household contacts have active eczema, or whose household contacts have
a history of eczema. Persons with other acute, chronic or exfoliative skin conditions
(e.g., atopic dermatitis, burns, impetigo or varicella zoster) might also be at
higher risk for eczema vaccinatum and should not be vaccinated until the condition
Infected with HIV;
with immunosuppression (leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy, solid organ
transplantation, cellular or humoral immunity disorders, therapy with akylating
agents, antimetabolites, radiation or high-dose corticosteroid therapy);
and Children under age 18;
Women: Vaccinia virus has been reported to cause fetal infection on rare
occasions, almost always after primary vaccination of the mother. Cases have been
reported as recently as 1978. When fetal vaccinia does occur, it usually results
in stillbirth or death of the infant soon after delivery.
Other contraindication considerations: Although the CDC does not list herpes
infection as a contraindication in non-emergencies, the case reports of progressive
vaccinia in persons with herpes suggest that use of the vaccinia virus vaccine
today may result in many more cases of progressive vaccinia than in the past.
Herpes infection, like HIV, is more widespread today than it was prior to the
early 1970s, when routine vaccinia virus vaccination was discontinued.
CDC Eliminates Absolute Contraindications In Emergency: The CDC states
absolute contraindications exist regarding vaccination of a person with a high-risk
exposure to smallpox. Persons at greatest risk for experiencing serious vaccination
complications are also at greatest risk for death from smallpox. If a relative
contraindication to vaccination exists, the risk for experiencing serious vaccination
complications must be weighed against the risk for experiencing a potentially
fatal smallpox infection. When the level of exposure risk is undetermined, the
decision to vaccinate should be made after prudent assessment by the clinician
and the patient of the potential risks versus the benefits of smallpox [vaccinia
Other Considerations: Whether a person dies from a disease or a vaccine,
a death is a death and one cause of death is no more important than another when
individual human life is valued. Because there are no genetic or other biomarkers
to definitively predict ahead of time who will be harmed by vaccination, there
must be strict adherence to the informed consent ethic, especially during times
of emergencies when all contraindications are officially suspended. To do any
less, places public health officials and anyone, who forces vaccination on a person
without that persons informed consent, in the role of judge and executioner
of the genetically and biologically vulnerable.
Contact Transmission of Vaccinia Virus: Care must be taken to prevent spread
of the vaccine virus from the vaccination lesion site to other areas of the body
or to another person. Use of gauze or porous bandages (to allow air to dry the
site lesion) is advised with bandages changed every 1 to 2 days. No salves or
ointments should be placed on the vaccination lesion. The most important action
for preventing vaccinia virus transmission is frequent hand washing with soap
and water or disinfecting agents after contact with the vaccination site. Disposal
of bandages that have covered the site in sealed plastic bags and decontaminating
clothing or materials that have contact with the site by laundering in hot water
with bleach is also important.20,52
Vaccinia Virus Vaccine Transmission: Scientists are using vaccinia virus as
a vehicle for creating new vaccines. Genes from herpes simplex virus, hepatitis
B virus, HIV and malaria reportedly have been inserted into the vaccinia genome.19
In the 1970s and 1980s, as researchers began experimenting with genetically
engineering different strains of vaccinia viruses to contain and express foreign
DNA to induce protection against infectious agents such as HIV, there were reports
of laboratory-acquired infections with vaccinia or recombinant viruses.20,24
In 1991 the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advised
that health care workers, who were exposed to volunteers in new vaccine trials
using genetically engineered vaccinia virus, be vaccinated with vaccinia virus
vaccine. The CDC recommendations stated that::
the initiation of human trials of recombinant vaccines, physicians, nurses and
other health-care personnel who provide clinical care to recipients of these vaccines
could be exposed to both vaccinia and recombinant viruses. The exposure could
occur from contact with dressings contaminated with the virus or through exposure
to the vaccine. The risk of transmission of recombinant viruses to exposed health
care workers is unknown
however, because of the potential for transmission
of vaccinia or recombinant vaccinia viruses to such persons, the ACIP suggests
that health care personnel who have direct contact with contaminated dressings
or other infectious material from volunteers in clinical studies be considered
Health Secretary Orders 300 Million Doses of Vaccine: One month after the
September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, DHHS
Secretary Tommy Thompson called on industry and government to produce and stockpile
300 million doses of vaccinia virus vaccine by the end of 2002. He said that all
Americans should know they have their name on a vaccine shot in our inventory.
Cost estimates range from $500 million to nearly $2 billion.1,15,78 In order to
be able to accomplish this goal, some in industry are calling for cutting the
number of participants in vaccine trials and bypassing standard safety and efficacy
requirements to quickly create a stockpile of vaccine.16,17,25
Industry Asks for Immunity From Lawsuits: Drug companies competing for
the multi-million dollar contract to produce enough vaccinia virus vaccine to
vaccinate every American are asking Congress to pass legislation shifting all
liability for vaccine injuries and deaths to the government (American taxpayer).
Already, there are bills being drafted in Congress to create a federal fund to
compensate victims of bioterrorism vaccines, such as vaccinia virus vaccine.79
Office of Preparedness Created: DHHS Secretary Thompson has appointed D.A.
Henderson, founding director of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at
Johns Hopkins University and architect of the worldwide smallpox eradication effort,
as well as Philip Russell, a retired Army major general specializing in vaccine
development, to head a new Office of Preparedness that will expand new vaccine
programs and develop strategies to respond to public health emergencies. Dr. Henderson
has been quoted as saying his top priority is to improve the communications
system that will allow the medical community and government to mount a coordinated
Plan Will Militarize Public Health System: The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense
has stated The discovery of a single suspected case of smallpox must be
treated as an international health emergency.49 Although it is very important
to have a well crafted bioterrorism emergency response plan in place, along with
enough vaccine for everyone who wants to use it, it is difficult to envision the
necessity for giving public health officials the kind of sweeping police powers
now being advocated by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
With funding and direction provided from the CDC, a lawyer at the Georgetown University
Center for Law and the Publics Health, Lawrence Gostin, has created model
state legislation that will allow public health officials to mobilize and use
all or any part of the organized militia to isolate, quarantine and
force vaccination and medical treatment on American citizens in states where a
Governor has called a state of emergency for 30 days or more. (Go
to www.publichealthlaw.net to read the law).
Public health officials would be given the power to coordinate all matters
pertaining to the public health emergency, including the right to seize
private property such as communications devices, carriers, real estate,
fuels, food, clothing and health care facilities and take control of the
use, sale, dispensing, distribution and transportation of food, fuel, clothing
and other commodities, alcoholic beverages, firearms, explosives and combustibles
as well as take control of roads and public areas.
If passed by the states, the law would give unprecedented police powers to public
health officials and those they designate to charge citizens with misdemeanors
and imprison them if they refuse to comply with vaccination, medical treatment
or isolation orders without being able to go to court first. Those who participate
in enforcing the law would not be held liable for any injury, death or loss of
property which resulted.
In the preface to this model state legislation, Gostin justified the law he wrote
for the CDC by referring to the 1905 Supreme Court decision Jacobsen v Massachusetts,
which upheld the right of US states to pass mandatory vaccination laws. Gostin,
who is a longtime forced vaccination proponent, will be working with the National
Governors Association, National Conference of State Legislatures, Association
of State and Territorial Health Officials, National Association of City and County
Health Officers, and National Association of Attorneys General to get this legislation
passed in every state. It has already been introduced in Massachusetts.
v Massachusetts Revisited: How did we get to this point in America, where
public health officials would presume to appropriate the kind of police power
they are now saying they should be given? It all goes back to a man name Jacobsen
who, in 1905, sued the state of Massachusetts for requiring him and his son to
get a second vaccinia virus (smallpox) vaccination or pay a $5 fine. Jacobsen
refused to get revaccinated or pay the fine, saying that he and his son had had
a bad reaction to a previous vaccination for smallpox and were afraid they would
be injured or die from a second one. Jacobsen maintained that forcing him to be
revaccinated was an assault upon his person and violated his constitutional
In its majority opinion in Jacobsen v Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11(1905), the Supreme
Court rejected the evidence Jacobsen presented to show that the vaccine can cause
injury and death and that doctors cannot distinguish between those who will be
harmed and those who will not be harmed. The Court concluded, The matured
opinions of medical men everywhere, and the experience of mankind, as all must
know, negative the suggestion that it is not possible in any case to determine
whether vaccination is safe.
Cannot Predict Who Will Be Harmed: The fact the Supreme Court at the turn
of the 20th century did not have accurate medical information upon which to base
their precedent-setting decision is unfortunate. It has been proven in the succeeding
96 years, most recently in the US Court of Claims in Washington, D.C. where nearly
two billion dollars has been awarded to families whose children have been killed
or been injured by mandated childhood vaccines, that often doctors cannot predict
ahead of time which individuals will react to vaccines and die or be left with
mental retardation, medication-resistant seizure disorders, paralysis, learning
disabilities, ADHD, autism, chronic arthritis, or other immune and brain dysfunction.6
and Inhuman To The Last Degree: This is a critical point in measuring the
consequences of assigning police powers to public health officials for the purpose
of enforcing vaccination, particularly in cases where parents suspect their children
are at increased risk for reacting to vaccines - even though government health
officials, anxious to achieve a 100 percent vaccination rate, disagree. In their
opinion, the 1905 Supreme Court justices acknowledged that vaccination must not
be forced on a person whose physical condition would make vaccination cruel
and inhuman to the last degree. We are not to be understood as holding that the
statute was intended to be applied in such a case or, if it was so intended, that
the judiciary would not be competent to interfere and protect the health and life
of the individual concerned.
Therefore, when interpreting Jacobsen v Massachusetts in 2002, it is important
to remember that, although the Court agreed that states may enact such reasonable
regulations established directly by legislative enactment as will protect the
public health and the public safety, the Supreme Court made it clear that
mandatory vaccination laws must not be applied unreasonably so as to result in
harm to individuals. In other words, the state does not have the right to command
that an individual sacrifice his or her life in the name of the public health.
Was in Fashion: What, then, did the 1905 Supreme Court mean when it went on
to declare that it was the duty of the constituted authorities primarily
to keep in view the welfare, comfort and safety of the many, and not permit the
interests of the many to be subordinated to the wishes or convenience of the few?
The wishes or convenience of the few certainly does not translate
into the lives of the few, but still, the historical context in which
this declaration was made is very important.
In 1905, the political doctrine known as utilitarianism was a popular
philosophical tenet, which judged the rightness or wrongness of an action by its
consequences and held that an action that is moral or ethical results in the greatest
happiness for the greatest numbers of people. With its emphasis on numbers of
people, utilitarianism became a convenient way to justify state legislative policy.
Karl Marx used utilitarian principles to formulate his economic theories and modern
cost benefit analyses are also descendents of utilitarianism.12
Autonomy Must Come First: In 1927, jurist Oliver Wendall Holmes embraced the
utilitarian rationale when he used Jacobsen v Massachusetts to justify the forced
sterilization of a mentally retarded woman to, in effect, protect the public welfare.
Writing for the majority in a 8-1 Supreme Court decision, Buck v Bell, 274 U.S.
200 (1927), Holmes said The principle that sustains compulsory vaccination
is broad enough to cover cutting the Fallopian tubes.
Not long after, Hitler would embrace the same kind of rationalization used by
Holmes in that stunning 1927 legal opinion and go on to pursue his own brand of
social engineering to eliminate from society those persons the Third Reich had
judged to be genetically inferior, physically or mentally compromised, or socially
unacceptable (homosexuals, political dissidents) because they were thought to
be a threat to the public health and welfare.81 The tragic moral failure of utilitarianism
was finally revealed at the Doctors Trial at Nuremberg after World War II,
where it was discredited by the Nuremberg Tribunal as a pseudo-ethic.11 In its
place stands the Nuremberg Code, which places the right of individuals to self
determination and autonomy above the right of the state, science and medicine
to derive benefits from them.
The human right to informed consent to medical interventions that can injure or
kill is the centerpiece of modern bioethics. It insures that the individual has
control over decisions and actions involving life and death, which are the most
sacred of all decisions and actions humans are ever called upon to make.
Vaccinating America at Gunpoint
Barbara Loe Fisher
Like every American, I never imagined that I would experience the kind of shock
and horror that came on September 11 with the terrorist attacks on New York and
Washington, D.C. While our world has changed forever, there are some things that
never change. Truth does not change. What it means to be free does not change.
response to the fear and anxiety that still hangs like a bad dream over our nation,
in the mad scramble to do something to make Americans feel safe again,
government officials employed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have stepped
forward to suggest that they and their state health department counterparts are
the only ones who can keep us safe whenever they decide there is a public
health emergency if only we will give them the power to use the state
militia to arrest, quarantine and forcibly vaccinate and medicate us. Not satisfied
with that, they also want the power to seize our private property, including our
homes, as well as our telephones, fax machines, computers, cars, fuel, food, clothing,
firearms, prescription drugs and the alcoholic beverages in our refrigerator.
Just in case you were thinking you could make it to the border before the public
health militia comes to get you, they want the power to take over all roads in
and out of your city and state, too.
And to make sure they cant get sued by anyone for anything they do, they
are asking for total legal immunity for destroying your property or killing you
or your children when they enforce the law. They are joined in this quest by the
drug companies making bioterrorism vaccines, like the notoriously
reactive smallpox vaccine never tested for safety in clinical trials. Not only
are the drug companies demanding that Congress give them total legal immunity
for all vaccine-induced injuries and deaths, they are also demanding that the
bioterrorism vaccines they produce be exempt from normal federal safety and efficacy
What is wrong with this picture?
Certainly, America should have enough smallpox vaccine or other bioterrorism
vaccines for everyone who voluntarily wants to use them: but not ones that havent
been properly tested. Certainly, America should have a sound, workable emergency
plan in place in the event of a bioterrorism attack: but not one that places the
life and liberty of the majority of citizens in the hands of an elite few, who
will have the power to take both from citizens without their consent.
This CDC-funded and initiated legislation treats us like runaway slaves in need
of subjugation. The laws proposed elimination of the informed consent principle,
which has governed the ethical use of medical interventions that can injure or
kill ever since the Doctors Trial at Nuremberg after World War II, is clear
indication that public health officials want the sole authority to decide who
will live and who will die and under what conditions.
No state of emergency in a free society justifies the sacrifice of the most sacred
human right: the right to voluntarily decide what you are willing to risk your
life for or your childs life for. What it means to be free doesnt
get more basic than that.
I have said many times during the past decade, that if the state can tag, track
down and force citizens to be injected with biologicals of unknown toxicity today,
then there will be no limit on what individual freedoms the state can take away
in the name of the greater good tomorrow. Now, tomorrow is here.
In this time of great sadness, fear and confusion, Americans have a choice to
make: either we defend the individual freedoms our forefathers fought and died
to give us, or we sacrifice those freedoms and let the terrorists win. What we
do will define who we are as a nation for many years to come.
Bottom Line: What You Need to Know About Smallpox Vaccine
spreads vaccinia virus from one person to another, which can kill or injure people
causes reactions in almost everyone who gets it (fever, spread of vaccine virus
to other parts of body) and causes extremely severe reactions in 1 in 4,000 persons
which can lead to death or injury;
was never tested in clinical trials before it was used on a mass basis and mandated;
companies making old and new smallpox vaccines want normal federal vaccine safety
and efficacy standards to be suspended so the vaccines can be licensed quickly;
companies do not want to be held liable for any injuries and deaths caused by
old and new smallpox vaccines.
Bottom Line: What You Need To Know About Proposed Laws in Your State
federal and state public health officials convince your Governor to declare a
public health emergency, they want to be able to use the state
control of all roads leading into and out of your cities and state;
your house, car, telephones, computers, food, fuel, clothing, firearms and alcoholic
beverages for their own use (and not be held liable if these actions result in
the destruction of your personal property);
imprison and forcibly examine, vaccinate and medicate you and your children without
your consent (and not be held liable if these actions result in your death or
YOU Can Do:
The most important action you can take is to give this information to as many
people as you can and let your individual voice be heard. Let people know where
and write your federal and state legislators and President and Mrs. Bush at http://congress.nw.dc.us/c-span/search.html
Write to Attorney General John Ashcroft and Health Secretary Tommy Thompson;
to the Attorney General, may be sent to:
Department of Justice
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20530-0001
to Secretary Thompson, may be sent to:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20201
Toll Free: 1-877-696-6775
your local newspaper, radio and television stations and give them a copy of this
to as many people as you can in your community, especially your community leaders.
up for NVICs free Vaccine E-News so you can keep up-to-date on
the latest news in the development of vaccines and forced vaccination laws.
after 9/11, I spent months researching ancient and alternative treatments for
catastrophic diseases, including smallpox. Click
here to learn about the results of that research.
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For More Information:
At this NVIC website, http://www.909shot.com,
you can access links to other vaccine and health information resources, as well
as sign up to subscribe to NVICs free Vaccine E-News Service or become a
member of the National Vaccine Information Center.
Barbara Loe Fisher is co-founder and president of the National Vaccine Information
Center. She is co-author of DPT: A Shot in the Dark (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
1985; Warner, 1986; Avery, 1991), a book which made an important contribution
to public support for development of the purified pertussis vaccine licensed by
the FDA for American babies in 1996. She is author of The Consumers Guide
to Childhood Vaccines (NVIC, 1997) and editor of THE VACCINE REACTION and The
Vaccine Hotline newsletters.
During the 1980s, she helped lead a national grassroots effort to bring
the issue of vaccine safety to public attention, including leading demonstrations
at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and at the White House in 1986.
Later that year, Congress passed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act.
She served on the National Vaccine Advisory Committee for four years, where she
was chair of the subcommittee on adverse events. She was appointed to the Vaccine
Safety Forum at the Institute of Medicine in 1995, where she helped to coordinate
five public workshops on vaccine safety. She has served as the consumer voting
member of the FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee
since 1999. She is a frequent public speaker at educational health conferences,
where she defends the right to informed consent to medical interventions which
can cause injury or death, including vaccination.
The mother of three children, in 1980 her two and a half year old son reacted
within four hours of his fourth DPT and polio vaccinations with a convulsion,
collapse shock and six hour state of unconsciousness. He was left with minimal
brain dysfunction, including multiple learning disabilities and attention deficit
the National Vaccine Information Center
The National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC), founded in 1982 by parents of
vaccine injured children, is a non-profit, educational organization (501C3) dedicated
to preventing vaccine injuries and deaths through public education. NVIC promotes
scientific research into the biological causes of vaccine injury and death in
order to identify biomarkers which place individuals at high risk for suffering
vaccine reactions. NVIC advocates the institution of informed consent protections
in mass vaccination laws and serves as a watchdog on vaccine research, development,
regulation and promotion activities of public health agencies.
After launching the vaccine safety and informed consent movement in the U.S. in
the early 1980s, NVICs co-founders worked with Congress to create
the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. This historic law set up a
vaccine injury compensation program and included vaccine safety provisions, such
as mandatory reporting of hospitalizations, injuries and deaths following vaccination.
1989, NVIC sponsored an International Scientific Workshop on Pertussis and Pertussis
Vaccines and, in 1996, one of NVICs major goals was realized when a purified
pertussis vaccine was licensed for American babies after a decade and a half of
advocacy work. In 1997, NVIC held the First International Public Conference on
Vaccination and sponsored the Second International Public Conference on Vaccination
on Sept. 8-10, 2000 in Washington, D.C. The Third International Public Conference
on Vaccination will be held on November 7-9, 2002 in Arlington, Virginia.
THE VACCINE REACTION is a publication of the National Vaccine Information Center
(NVIC), a national, nonprofit organization dedicated to preventing vaccine injuries
and deaths through public education. All rights reserved.
Loe Fisher, Co-founder & President
Kathi Williams, Co-founder and Vice
Geeta Choppala, Editorial Assistant
National Vaccine Information Center
421-E Church Street, Vienna, VA 22180
1-800-909SHOT (orders and donations only)
703-938-0342 (phone) 703-938-5768
Throughout this entire website, statements are made pertaining to
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These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration
and these materials and products are not intended to diagnose, treat,
cure or prevent any disease.